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Recent research and reviews have also been completed to characterize the sleep, and prevalence of sleep disorders, among special pediatric populations.
Tietze A.L., Blankenburg M., Hechler T., Michel E., Koh M., Schlüter B., Zernikow B.(2012). Sleep disturbances in children with multiple disabilities. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16,117-127.
Tietze and colleagues (2012), for example, provide a review of the current literature on sleep disturbances in disabled children, as well as outline future empirical directions to be considered within this domain. Based on their review, the authors estimate that sleep disorders are present among 67% of disabled children (76% of children with multiple or “mixed” diagnoses and 65% with specific diagnoses). Among children with severe global cerebral injury, the prevalence was greater than 90%. Insomnia and sleep-related breathing disorders were the most frequent symptoms noted. Overall, the authors conclude that there is an urgent need for sleep assessment tools that have been evaluated for use with specific pediatric populations of interest.

Furthermore, important links between sleep and a variety physical health outcomes during childhood have been recently examine.
Boto, L. R., Crispim, N. J., Saraiva de Melo, I., Juvandes, C., Rodrigues, T., Azeredo, P., Ferreira R. (2012). Sleep deprivation and accidental fall risk in children. Sleep Medicine 13, 88–95.
Boto and colleagues (2012) investigated the relationship between sleep deprivation and accidental fall risk among children aged 1 to 14 years. Through the analysis of questionnaire data, it was found that an absence of naps and children’s previous week’s sleep pattern was associated with increased risk for accidental falls, after controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., age, gender, summer holidays, parent education and occupation). Overall, the findings provide evidence that reduced sleep duration increases the risk of accidental child injuries, and highlight the protective effect of naps for children.
Kim, C. W., Choi, M. K., Im, H. J., Kim, O. H.,Lee, H. J.,Song, J.,Kang, J. H.,& Park, K. H. (2012). Weekend catch-up sleep is associated with decreased risk of being overweight among fifth-grade students with short sleep duration, Journal of Sleep Research, 21, 546-551.
Kim and colleagues (2012) examined the association between weekend catch-up sleep and overweight status among 936 school children between (aged10 to 11 years). It was found that increased catch-up sleep during the week-end, is associated with a decreased likelihood of being overweight among children. There was also an interaction between sleep duration during the school week, and week-end catch up sleep, in relation to childhood overweight, whereby the effect of weekend catch up sleep on overweight was stronger for those that slept less during the school week.
Perfect, M., Priti, P., Patel, G., Scott, R. E., Wheeler, M. D., Patel, C., Griffin, K., Sorensen, S. T., Goodwin, J. L., Quan, S. F. (2012). Sleep, glucose, and daytime functioning in youth with type 1 diabetes. Sleep, 35, 81-88.
The study was carried out to examine the relationships between objective and subjective sleep parameters and glucose regulation among youth with Type 1 diabetes. Participants with a Total AHI of greater than or equal to 1.5 had higher glucose levels. Moreover, children’s sleepiness and poor sleep habits were associated with depressive mood, as well as poorer academic outcomes, and quality of life. Associations between reduced slow wave sleep and higher glucose levels (hemoglobin A1C), poorer quality of life, and sleepiness were also noted. Furthermore, more time spent in stage N2 sleep was related to higher glucose levels, poorer sleep quality and sleepiness, as well as poorer emotional and behavioural and academic outcomes. The authors recommend that sleep be routinely assessed as a component of Type 1 diabetes management among youth.

dditional research has recently demonstrated the psychometric properties of several childhood measures of sleep and daytime sleepiness.
Meltzer, L. J., Biggs, S. Reynolds, A., Avis, K. T., McLaughlin-Crabtree, V., Bevans, K. B. (2012). The Children’s Report of Sleep Patterns – Sleepiness Scale: A self-report measure for school-aged children. Sleep Medicine, 13, 385–389.
This study by Meltzer and colleagues (2012) was conducted to establish the psychometric properties of the Children’s Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP-S), a self-report measure of daytime sleepiness for school-aged children. Analyses supported the internal consistency and the uni-dimensionality of the tool. Scale items were confirmed to cover a wide range of sleepiness experiences, with minimal redundancy, gaps, or bias against age, gender, or clinical group. Moreover, high test-retest reliability (0.82), as well as good construct and convergent validity was found. As such, the authors conclude that the CRSP-S is a reliable and valid self-report measure of daytime sleepiness for children
Dewald, J. F., Short, M. A., Gradisar, M., Oort, F. J., & Meijer, A. M. (2012). The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ): A cross-cultural comparison and validation in Dutch and Australian adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 21, 584-594.
Dewald and colleagues (2012) aimed to develop an English version of the Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire, as well as assess the reliability and validity of both the Dutch and English versions of the tool. The questionnaire was administered to large Dutch and Australian samples, and analyses revealed good psychometric properties (reliability and validity) for both versions. Moreover, sleep variables were assessed through the completion of surveys, sleep diaries, and actigraphy over 5 school nights. A significant relationship between adolescents’ school grades and chronic sleep reduction was found, while there was weak or the absence of any associations between school grades and others sleep variables.
Biggs, S. N., Kennedy, J.D., Martin, A.J., van den Heuvel, C.J., Lushington, K. (2012). Psychometric properties of an omnibus sleep problems questionnaire for school-aged children. Sleep Medicine, 13, 390–395.
Biggs and colleagues (2012) sought to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a robust omnibus sleep problems questionnaire for school-aged children. The questionnaire was completed by parents of 1904 children aged 5 to10 years, and principal axis factoring was conducted to determine factor structure. Analyses revealed 6 subscales: Sleep Routine, Bedtime Anxiety, Morning Tiredness, Night Arousals, Sleep Disordered Breathing and Restless Sleep. Moderate to strong internal consistency for subscales, as well as adequate test-retest reliability was found.