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On May 4th 2012, a CIHR-funded workshop entitled “Stop Dreaming! Integrating Pediatric Sleep into the Health and the Education Systems – Reasons, Barriers, and Facilitators” was held at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. Subsequent to the workshop, the position statement was developed though the integration of input from workshop speakers and attendees.

This Position Statement On Pediatric Sleep has been endorsed by the Canadian Sleep Society.

The position statement Pediatric Sleep is available for download.

Further studies have recently investigated the prevalence of sleep deprivation among youth, as well as the usefulness of existing sleep interventions to address this issue.
Matricciani, L., Olds, T., & Petkov, J. (2012). In search of lost sleep: secular trends in the sleep time of school-aged children and adolescents. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16, 203-11.
In a recent article by Matricciani, Olds, and Petkov (2012), literature reporting on the sleep duration of children and adolescents (5-18 years) between the years 1905 and 2008 was systematically reviewed. Based on data from 690, 747 children from 20 countries, the authors conclude that there has been a steady and rapid decline in sleep duration among youth over the last 103 years.
Garrison, M. M., & Christakis, D. A. (2012). The impact of a healthy media use intervention on sleep in preschool children, Pediatrics, 130, 492-9.
Garrison and Christakis (2012) recently conducted a randomized control trial of a healthy media use intervention which encouraged families (of healthy 3- 5 year olds) to substitute violent or inappropriate media content with higher quality, educational content in order to reduce children’s sleep problems. The healthy media use intervention was found to have significant effects on children’s sleep problems, supporting the contention that relationships between media use and sleep problems are causal in nature.
Blunden, S. L., Chapman, J., & Rigney, G. A. (2012). Are sleep education programs successful? The case for improved and consistent research efforts. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16, 355-370.
Blunden, Chapman, and Rigney (2012) present and evaluate the effectiveness of existing sleep education programs based on their review of 8 studies and 4 pilot studies. A general finding was that children’s level of sleep knowledge increased with exposure to most programs; however, changes in sleep duration or sleep hygiene were not necessarily found. The authors propose and discuss potential reasons for such findings, including individual variables (e.g., motivation and readiness to change), program variables (e.g., delivery, content of program) and methodological underpinnings.
Gruber, R., Cassoff, J., & Knauper, B. (2011). Sleep health education in pediatric community settings: Rationale and practical suggestions for incorporating healthy sleep education in pediatric practice. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58, 735-754.
This recent paper by Gruber, Cassoff, and Knauper (2011) offers practical suggestions for the incorporation of sleep education into pediatric practice. More specifically, the rationale, and beneficial features of healthy sleep education in pediatric practice is presented. In addition, key questions, and potential barriers associated with such efforts, as well as strategies to overcome such barriers, are discussed.

A number of recent studies have also been conducted regarding the diagnosis and management of sleep disorders during childhood.
Marcus, C. L., Brooks, L. J., Ward, S. D., Draper, K. A., Gozal, D., Halbower, A. C., Jones, J., Lehmann, C., Schechter, M. S., Sheldon, S., Shiffman, R. N., Spruyt, K. (2012). Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics, 130, e714-55.
Marcus and colleagues (2012) recently published a revised clinical practice guideline, outlining 8 recommendations for the diagnosis and management of childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSAS).
Community Paediatrics Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society (2012). Melatonin for the management of sleep disorders in children and adolescents. Paediatric and Child Health, 17(6), 331-333.
This article published by the Community Pediatrics Committee of the Canadian Pediatric Society reviews and critiques the use of melatonin for pediatric populations, noting that all previous studies have involved small research samples and evaluate only the short-term use of melatonin. Therefore, the authors conclude that further studies are necessary before the efficacy and safety of melatonin to treat pediatric sleep disorders can be confirmed.
Mansukhani, M. P., & Kotagal, S. (2012). Sodium oxybate in the treatment of childhood narcolepsy–cataplexy: A retrospective study. Sleep Medicine, 13, 606–610.
Moreover, a recent study by Mansukhani and Kotagal (2012) explored the usefulness and side effect profile of sodium - oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy-cataplexy among children and adolescents. Based on the data obtained from 15 pediatric patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy, the researchers found sodium-oxybate to be effective at alleviating sleepiness and reducing cataplexy episodes. Improvements in social and academic variables were also noted by many subjects. In total, 40% of the subjects experienced negative side effects, including constipation, dissociative feelings, aches, dizziness, tremors, blurred vision, nocturnal awakenings and more frequent nightmares.

Several recent publications have supported the assertion that sleep significantly impacts children’s daytime cognitive and behavioural functioning.
Astill, R. G., Van der Heijden, K. B., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Van Someren, E. J. W. (2012). Sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in school-age children: A century of research meta-analyzed. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0028204
Astill and colleagues (2012), recently completed a meta-analytic review of studies investigating the associations between sleep, cognition and problematic behaviours among children. Clear positive relationships between sleep duration and multiple complex/higher-order cognitive functions were identified. Moreover, shorter sleep duration was associated with more internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems among children. Recommendations regarding future measurement practices and study designs were identified.
Calhoun, S. L., Fernandez-Mendoza, J., Vgontzas, A. N., Mayes, S. D., Tsaoussoglou, M., Rodriguez-Muñoz, A. & Bixler, E. O. (2012). Learning, Attention/Hyperactivity, and Conduct Problems as Sequelae of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in a General Population Study of Young Children. Sleep, 35, 627-632.
Calhoun and colleagues (2012) have examined the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and children’s performance on objective neuro-cognitive tasks, as well as parent reports of learning, attention/hyperactivity and conduct problems. Using a large general population sample of children (N= 508), the researchers found significant negative relationships between parent-reported daytime sleepiness, and neuro- behavioural problems, as well as processing speed and working memory.
Bruni, O., Kohler, M., Novelli, L., Kennedy, D., Lushington, K., Martin, J. Ferri, R. (2012). The role of NREM sleep instability in child cognitive performance. Sleep, 35, 649-656.
On a basic neuro-physiological level, the relation between sleep and cognitive efficiency has been recently investigated by Bruni and colleagues (2012). Specifically, the role of NREM sleep instability, as measured by Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) Analysis, in children’s cognitive performance was examined. Significant positive relationships between children’s cognitive efficiency, and their phase A1 in total sleep, and Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) was found.
Gruber, R., Cassoff, J., Frenette, S., Wiebe, S., & Carrier, J. (2012). Impact of Sleep Extension and Restriction on Children's Emotional Lability and Impulsivity. Pediatrics, 130, 1155-1161.
Furthermore, Dr. Gruber and colleagues (2012) have recently examined the impact of experimental sleep extension and restriction on children’s behaviour at school. The results revealed that a modest extension in sleep duration significantly improved children’s alertness and emotional regulation at school, while sleep restriction was associated with a opposite pattern of results.